Our New Quote Wallpapers for Revision

 Blog, Organisational Behaviour  Comments Off on Our New Quote Wallpapers for Revision
Dec 212014
 

We’ve been busy making some wallpapers for here and My Human Resource Management Book today, so check them out and add them to your wallpaper folder!

Perception Wallpaper Motivation at Work Wallpaper Job Design in Organisations Wallpaper Groups and Teams in Organisations Wallpaper Culture in Organisations Wallpaper Behaviours in Organisations Wallpapers Attitudes in Organisations Wallpaper

Feb 142011
 

Attitudes Definition: An attitude is a way of thinking or feeling about something, a certain state of mind at the time.

Behaviours Definition: Behaviour is defined as the way one acts towards themselves and others around them. To link the two we could say that due to the attitude a person has towards spiders, he/she may behave differently.

What are Attitudes?

Mental states, developed through experience, which are always ready to exert an active influence on an individual’s response to any conditions or circumstances to which the person has been directed

Allport (1935)

Certain regularities of an individual’s feelings, thoughts and predispositions to act toward some aspect of his [sic] environment

Secord and Backman (1969)

ABC

There are said to be three components of an attitude, which can easily be remembered using ‘ACB’. These three components are;

  • Affective Component – feelings of an attitude – For example if a person is scared of spiders or dogs.
  • Behavioural Component – Predispositions to act towards an attitude. – For example if the person scared of spiders sees one, they will react and scream.
  • Cognitive Component – Thoughts about an attitude. – For example this is why they justify their actions against the spider, believing it to be dangerous in some way.

The main point about the ABC model is that we believe a person will be consistent with the attitudes towards things that they have. For example a person will always be scared when they see a spider. However, this is not always true, most people have the attitude that drinking excessively will be damaging to their health, yet despite this their behaviour around alcohol is to carry on drinking.

Attitudes in the Workplace

Attitudes come into the workplace under four different headings, these are;

  • Work Situation – Attitude towards the actual job; pay, co-workers, working conditions, etc. – This will influence how the culture is in the company, how people see the work situation will change their behaviours. If they believe they are not being paid enough, they may well act out behaviourally.
  • Personality – The way someone attitude is in the first place. – Completely dependant on the actual employee and a reason why the hiring process can be such a big part of a business, to ensure that they hire the right personality, the right person whose attitudes and behaviours fit in with those already working in the organisation.
  • Values – What comes out of the work. – The attitude towards the standard of work.
  • Social Influences – What co-workers, managers etc. attitudes are like. – If fellow co-workers are lazy, then the attitude is likely to by ‘well why should I work harder?’ and this will cause the behaviour of not working hard enough just because others are.

Key Learning Points

  1. What is the Definition of Attitudes?
  2. What is the Definition of Behaviours?
  3. What are the Three Main Components of Attitude?
  4. What are the Four Main Attitudes in the Workplace?

Organisational Behaviour Theories to Learn for Exam

 Organisational Behaviour, Theories  Comments Off on Organisational Behaviour Theories to Learn for Exam
Jan 122011
 

The following is just a list of the Organisational Behaviour Theories that you will probably need to learn for an OB exam.

Organisational Behaviour

  • Multidisciplinary Approach
  • Fundamental Attribution Error

Intelligence

  • One General Intelligence
  • Theories of Multiple Intelligence
  • Emotional Intelligence

Personality

  • Predicting Job Performance
  • Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
  • 2 Dimensions of Personality
  • Big Five Model
  • Psyche (Freud)
  • Personality Types A and B

Perception

  • Gestalt Principles
  • Fundamental Attribution Error

Motivation

  • Motivation Model
  • Common-sense 1, 2 and 3
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory
  • Modified Needs Hierarchy Model
  • Achievement Motivation Theory
  • Expectancy Theory
  • Goal-setting Theory

Attitudes and Behaviour

  • Organisational Behaviour Modification
  • Social Cognitive Learning Theory
  • Single and Double-loop Learning

Job Design

  • Taylor’s Five Principles of Scientific Management
  • McDonaldization
  • Core Job Characteristics Model
  • Motivating Potential Score
  • Analysis of Job Characteristics Model

Groups and Team

  • Building an Effective Team
  • Five Conditions of Successful Teamwork
  • Stages of Team Development
  • Adair’s Three Circles
  • The Four Phases and Seven Stages of Team Development

Single and Double Loop Learning: Attitudes and Behaviour

 Attitudes and Behaviours in Organisations  Comments Off on Single and Double Loop Learning: Attitudes and Behaviour
Dec 112010
 

Attitudes Definition: An attitude is a way of thinking or feeling about something, a certain state of mind at the time.

Behaviours Definition: Behaviour is defined as the way one acts towards themselves and others around them. To link the two we could say that due to the attitude a person has towards spiders, he/she may behave differently.

Single and Double Loop Learning Definition: This theory was made to try and understand how people learn within organisations.

  • Single-loop learning is the ability to use feedback to make continuous adjustments and adaptations, to maintain performance at the standard which the organisation is looking for.
  • Double-loop learning is the ability to challenge and redefine the assumptions underlying performance standards and to improve performance.

Single Loop learning is a much shorter process than Double Loop, as the continuous improvement only takes a bit out of the day for an employee. It is the idea that by continuously improving, costs will come down, profits will go up and the ability to compete will be easier. Double Loop learning tries to take everything and change it, it is the type of company which wants to innovate instead of steadily change to meet demands.

We can use the example of Nokia and Apple here, Nokia were in the Single Loop learning where they were trying to keep the same phone whilst reducing costs so they could sell to different markets, who didn’t have as much money, such as Africa, and although it worked somewhat, because they didn’t innovate they were left behind in their main markets of Europe and America.

Apple on the other hand set out to innovate, make the market come to them, instead of catering for the market. They challenged their beliefs and it worked, being one of the biggest companies in the world, whilst their old competitor Nokia has fallen rapidly.

Take a look at the diagram below to get a better understanding;

Single and Double Loop Learning

If you can’t see the diagram, or need some written information to copy to your notes the process is this;

(Goals) -> Actions -> Outcomes -> Evaluate Outcomes (Rethink Thoughts Behind Goals) -> Rethink Actions -> Actions

Argyris and Schon (1978)

Key Learning Points?

  1. What is the Definition of Attitudes?
  2. What is the Definition of Behaviours?
  3. What are the main points to the Single Loop Learning Theory?
  4. What are the main points to the Double Loop Learning Theory?

Social Cognitive Theory: Attitudes and Behaviour

 Attitudes and Behaviours in Organisations  Comments Off on Social Cognitive Theory: Attitudes and Behaviour
Dec 112010
 

Attitudes Definition: An attitude is a way of thinking or feeling about something, a certain state of mind at the time.

Behaviours Definition: Behaviour is defined as the way one acts towards themselves and others around them. To link the two we could say that due to the attitude a person has towards spiders, he/she may behave differently.

Social Cognitive Theory Definition: This theory is all about learning from watching what others do, and then replicating their behaviour. It is common everywhere in the world, children learn from their parents, then from their teachers and later on in life they learn how to work by following others with more experience.

Albert Bandura (1925)

The following video is a great resource for learning about this theory, and learning by listening is always better than learning by reading!

Key Learning Points

  1. Define Attitudes?
  2. Define Behaviours?
  3. What is the Social Cognitive Theory?

Organisational Behaviour Modification: Attitudes and Behaviour

 Attitudes and Behaviours in Organisations  Comments Off on Organisational Behaviour Modification: Attitudes and Behaviour
Dec 112010
 

Attitudes Definition: An attitude is a way of thinking or feeling about something, a certain state of mind at the time.

Behaviours Definition: Behaviour is defined as the way one acts towards themselves and others around them. To link the two we could say that due to the attitude a person has towards spiders, he/she may behave differently.

Organisational Behaviour Modification Definition: A way of changing behaviours and attitudes by using technology and new found knowledge to influence employees to act in different ways.

Luthans and Kreitner

Luthans and Kreitner orchestrated the way of altering people’s behaviour in business. Behaviour modification first started out in treating mental patients etc. but was soon discovered to be practical in many other areas.

Organisation Behaviour Modification Five Steps

  1. Identify the critical, observable and measurable work performance-related behaviours to be encouraged
  2. Measure the current frequency of those behaviours, to provide a baseline against which to measure improvement.
  3. Establish the triggers or antecedents for those behaviours, and also establish the consequences – positive, neutral or negative – that follow from those behaviours
  4. Develop and intervention strategy to strengthen desired behaviours and weaken dysfunction behaviours through the user of positive reinforcement and corrective feedback, noting that punishment may be necessary in some instances, for example to inhibit unsafe behaviour.
  5. Evaluate systematically the effectiveness of the approach in changing behaviour and improving performance compared with the original baseline measurement.

Luthans and Kreitner (1985)

Dec 042010
 

Personality Definition: A personality is a mixture of a person’s characteristics, beliefs and qualities which make them who they are.

What is the Definition of Personality?

“A relatively enduring pattern of thinking, feeling and acting that characterizes a person’s response to her or his environment”

Bratton (2010)

Importance of Personality in an Organisation?

Personality is a key element in an organisation as it defines what the culture will be like, what the attitudes and behaviours are and in turn the success of the company.

When hiring a person their personality needs to fit in with the rest of the company so that the culture which has been created, can be kept the same and a company can continue striving for results. Although in most cases this is true, personality can also be important when a company needs a change in direction, as a new personality, say in the CEO position of a business, can dramatically alter the way the company works and therefore how well the company does in terms of revenue and profit.

Therefore the Human Resource Management section of a company really needs to figure out a personality before they are hired. This is why a number of questions are asked in terms of motivation, personal development and hobbies, as matching these with what the company already has is the best way of getting the right culture.

If you would like to read more about personality within organisations and management, then please read the following theories;

Predicting Job Performance

Reinforcement Theory: Attitudes and Behaviour

 Attitudes and Behaviours in Organisations  Comments Off on Reinforcement Theory: Attitudes and Behaviour
Dec 042010
 

Attitudes Definition: An attitude is a way of thinking or feeling about something, a certain state of mind at the time.

Behaviours Definition: Behaviour is defined as the way one acts towards themselves and others around them. To link the two we could say that due to the attitude a person has towards spiders, he/she may behave differently.

Reinforcement Theory Definition: The main aspect of the reinforcement theory is that when behaviour is reinforced, then it will be repeated and used again, when if the behaviour is not reinforced, then that behaviour will continue you the same and not change, therefore if this behaviour is currently bad, it will stay that way, unless something is done.

The Reinforcement Theory starts to look into punishment and reward for behaviour. This is what Skinner started to go into, saying that punishment was needed to make sure people stay on the right track and produce work which is of an adequate quality.

Positive Reinforcement

A way to try and make people have desirable behaviour by making sure there are positive consequences when the right behaviour is used.

Negative Reinforcement

The opposite to positive, when bad behaviour happens then the consequence will be bad, this tries to encourage positive reinforcement.

(Skinner, 1904-1990)

Key Learning Points

  1. How Do You Define Attitudes?
  2. How Do You Define Behaviours?
  3. What is the Reinforcement Theory?
Dec 042010
 

Organisational Behaviour and Management comes with many different theories. On My Organisational Behaviour we are trying to provide you with an overview of each of these theories, as well as this I’ll be trying to add more depth in future posts. Take a look at the current available theories below:

Theories of Intelligence

Theories of Personality

Theories of Motivation

Theories of Perception

Theories of Attitudes and Behaviour

Organisational Behaviour

 Expand Your Understanding, Organisational Behaviour  Comments Off on Organisational Behaviour
Dec 042010
 

Organisational Behaviour is a multi-disciplined approach to how an organisation works. It takes into account the personality system of a organisation, the cultural system and also the social system.

A lot has been written up about Organisational Behaviour, and many theories have been made to try and show us what the whole concept is. On this website you should hopefully get an idea of what it is, and how we use it within management to get the most of of employees and ourselves.

Take a look at the following pages to learn a bit more;

What is Organisational Behaviour?

Intelligence in Organisations

Personality in Organisations

Motivation in Organisations

Perception in Organisations

Groups and Teams in Organisations

Job Design in Organisation

Culture in Organisations