Feb 142011
 

Attitudes Definition: An attitude is a way of thinking or feeling about something, a certain state of mind at the time.

Behaviours Definition: Behaviour is defined as the way one acts towards themselves and others around them. To link the two we could say that due to the attitude a person has towards spiders, he/she may behave differently.

What are Attitudes?

Mental states, developed through experience, which are always ready to exert an active influence on an individual’s response to any conditions or circumstances to which the person has been directed

Allport (1935)

Certain regularities of an individual’s feelings, thoughts and predispositions to act toward some aspect of his [sic] environment

Secord and Backman (1969)

ABC

There are said to be three components of an attitude, which can easily be remembered using ‘ACB’. These three components are;

  • Affective Component – feelings of an attitude – For example if a person is scared of spiders or dogs.
  • Behavioural Component – Predispositions to act towards an attitude. – For example if the person scared of spiders sees one, they will react and scream.
  • Cognitive Component – Thoughts about an attitude. – For example this is why they justify their actions against the spider, believing it to be dangerous in some way.

The main point about the ABC model is that we believe a person will be consistent with the attitudes towards things that they have. For example a person will always be scared when they see a spider. However, this is not always true, most people have the attitude that drinking excessively will be damaging to their health, yet despite this their behaviour around alcohol is to carry on drinking.

Attitudes in the Workplace

Attitudes come into the workplace under four different headings, these are;

  • Work Situation – Attitude towards the actual job; pay, co-workers, working conditions, etc. – This will influence how the culture is in the company, how people see the work situation will change their behaviours. If they believe they are not being paid enough, they may well act out behaviourally.
  • Personality – The way someone attitude is in the first place. – Completely dependant on the actual employee and a reason why the hiring process can be such a big part of a business, to ensure that they hire the right personality, the right person whose attitudes and behaviours fit in with those already working in the organisation.
  • Values – What comes out of the work. – The attitude towards the standard of work.
  • Social Influences – What co-workers, managers etc. attitudes are like. – If fellow co-workers are lazy, then the attitude is likely to by ‘well why should I work harder?’ and this will cause the behaviour of not working hard enough just because others are.

Key Learning Points

  1. What is the Definition of Attitudes?
  2. What is the Definition of Behaviours?
  3. What are the Three Main Components of Attitude?
  4. What are the Four Main Attitudes in the Workplace?

Single and Double Loop Learning: Attitudes and Behaviour

 Attitudes and Behaviours in Organisations  Comments Off on Single and Double Loop Learning: Attitudes and Behaviour
Dec 112010
 

Attitudes Definition: An attitude is a way of thinking or feeling about something, a certain state of mind at the time.

Behaviours Definition: Behaviour is defined as the way one acts towards themselves and others around them. To link the two we could say that due to the attitude a person has towards spiders, he/she may behave differently.

Single and Double Loop Learning Definition: This theory was made to try and understand how people learn within organisations.

  • Single-loop learning is the ability to use feedback to make continuous adjustments and adaptations, to maintain performance at the standard which the organisation is looking for.
  • Double-loop learning is the ability to challenge and redefine the assumptions underlying performance standards and to improve performance.

Single Loop learning is a much shorter process than Double Loop, as the continuous improvement only takes a bit out of the day for an employee. It is the idea that by continuously improving, costs will come down, profits will go up and the ability to compete will be easier. Double Loop learning tries to take everything and change it, it is the type of company which wants to innovate instead of steadily change to meet demands.

We can use the example of Nokia and Apple here, Nokia were in the Single Loop learning where they were trying to keep the same phone whilst reducing costs so they could sell to different markets, who didn’t have as much money, such as Africa, and although it worked somewhat, because they didn’t innovate they were left behind in their main markets of Europe and America.

Apple on the other hand set out to innovate, make the market come to them, instead of catering for the market. They challenged their beliefs and it worked, being one of the biggest companies in the world, whilst their old competitor Nokia has fallen rapidly.

Take a look at the diagram below to get a better understanding;

Single and Double Loop Learning

If you can’t see the diagram, or need some written information to copy to your notes the process is this;

(Goals) -> Actions -> Outcomes -> Evaluate Outcomes (Rethink Thoughts Behind Goals) -> Rethink Actions -> Actions

Argyris and Schon (1978)

Key Learning Points?

  1. What is the Definition of Attitudes?
  2. What is the Definition of Behaviours?
  3. What are the main points to the Single Loop Learning Theory?
  4. What are the main points to the Double Loop Learning Theory?