Our New Quote Wallpapers for Revision

 Blog, Organisational Behaviour  Comments Off on Our New Quote Wallpapers for Revision
Dec 212014
 

We’ve been busy making some wallpapers for here and My Human Resource Management Book today, so check them out and add them to your wallpaper folder!

Perception Wallpaper Motivation at Work Wallpaper Job Design in Organisations Wallpaper Groups and Teams in Organisations Wallpaper Culture in Organisations Wallpaper Behaviours in Organisations Wallpapers Attitudes in Organisations Wallpaper

The 4 Main Workforce Trends That We Are Facing Today

 Blog, Motivation in Organisations, Organisational Behaviour  Comments Off on The 4 Main Workforce Trends That We Are Facing Today
Dec 202014
 

It comes as no surprise that in the last 50 years a lot has changed around the world, and with that a lot has changed in the workplaces within organisations around the world. Without these changes, growth wouldn’t have happen and on the more negative side, the market crashes wouldn’t had happened.

Yet through the thick and thin, change is important within the world and organisations. It is needed to keep us thinking, keep us on our toes and keep us growing.

In this article, the first for the My Organisational Behaviour Blog, we will explore the eight main workforce trends which are affecting businesses all over the first world. These examples are mainly taken from the British workforce, but when looking at countries such as the United States of America, Canada and Germany, the trends are much the same.

An Ageing Workforce

The birth rate in Britain has decreased with last year “just 698,512 babies were born, down from 729,674 the year before”. Although this doesn’t seem like a massive problem, the effect of decreasing birth rates means that workers have to continue working for longer to support themselves and the economy. This in turn leads it to being harder for the younger generation to get jobs, as people are not retiring at the standard age set by the government.

This article from the Telegraph paints a good picture of why this is a challenge for organisations;

An ageing workforce creates significant challenges for employers, especially around how to control the cost of benefit provision for this group of workers. Employers need to recognise that the benefits they offer need to be adapted to deliver to the needs of the whole workforce, regardless of age,” said Mr Ball.

A lot is said of older worker being less productive and less inclined to learn new skills. I can’t say I believe this, as it is dependent on the person and culture they are in, rather than the age they are labelled with.

Female Participation in High-Status Jobs

One of the best changes which is happening in organisations is the participation of females in higher roles. After years of women struggling in the workplace, we are finally in a position to see men and women both at the top of the bill.

In fact an article which was published a few years ago on The Telegraph’s website goes as far as saying that there are more women in higher positions than men now, however the pay is still not equal.

I’m a firm believer in that this shouldn’t affect an organisation too much, as men and women should be treated equal anyway, so the way an organisation is run hopefully already takes this into account…

Increasing Participation of Historically Disadvantaged Groups

Another change which is fantastic, is that disadvantaged groups have started to appear more in organisations. From racial problems to people with physical disabilities, there doesn’t seem to be too much of a problem anymore with everyone having equal treatment in the workplace.

With the higher participation of these groups, it translate into even better places, with David Cameron strengthening his business advisory group with three women and first black FTSE 100 CEO.

More use of Various Flexible Working Practices

Part-time, temporary contracts and zero hour contracts have all become massive in the last couple of years, with people preferring to try and fit work around their life, to be happier and more content. This changes the workplace in many good and bad ways.

Communication can be badly affected as part-time workers and temporary contract workers won’t be around as often, and as they aren’t there as often, they may not care as much, leading to communication problems around all of the company. As well as this it may be harder to keep track of which employees are in when, hence why most companies with flexitime still make it a requirement for workers to come into the office in-between at least 2 to 4 hours when everyone else is there. This allows any important meetings etc. to take place.

On the other hand, flexible working is said to drastically improve motivation as it allows people to have their own lives away from work.

Working flexibly has allowed Karina to be there for her children while also running a start-up business. It has also enabled her to keep costs down and save money during the first few months of setting up a business by not having to rent expensive office space and pay for the associated overheads such as gas, electricity or travel costs. Instead, Karina can work from home, a cafe or wherever she needs to be.

In many ways it depends on the organisation. But the research suggests that flexible working, works.

Read More on this Subject

Feb 142011
 

Motivation Definition: The reason or reasons to act in a particular way. It is what makes us do things and carry out tasks for the organisation. However, motivation is often used as an excuse, a lack of motivation for not doing anything. This is why in an organisation discipline needs to be used, to inspire the fact that motivation isn’t always needed, but discipline to get the job done is.

What is Motivation?

Motivation is that which energises, directs and sustains behaviour

(Steers & Porter 1979)

Motivation is important within organisations because managers need to know how to motivate their staff, so that they work harder, enjoy work life more and in turn generate more profit for the company. Its important to know; how people are motivated, why people are motivated and also how the manager themselves are motivated, because if they aren’t then it is very unlikely that the rest of the team will be.

How to Motivate Employees

Although everyone is motivated differently, as they require different things to make them happy and content, there are a set of aspects which will normally work on most people.

  • Money
  • Health Care
  • Flexitime

These are just a few, if we dive more into the theories though we can see a lot more;

Theories of Motivation

Motivational Quotes

In many situations motivational quotes are used to try and energise employees. A sample of these are shown below;

Motivation will almost always beat mere talent.

– Norman Ralph Augustine

Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time.

– Thomas A. Edison

The secret of getting ahead is getting started.

– Mark Twain

Arnold Schwarzenegger – “Who do YOU want to be in life?”

One of my favourite motivational videos, from the great Arnie!

 Key Learning Points

  1. How Would You Define Motivation?
  2. Why is Discipline Important?
  3. How Would You Motivate an Employee?

Organisational Behaviour Modification: Attitudes and Behaviour

 Attitudes and Behaviours in Organisations  Comments Off on Organisational Behaviour Modification: Attitudes and Behaviour
Dec 112010
 

Attitudes Definition: An attitude is a way of thinking or feeling about something, a certain state of mind at the time.

Behaviours Definition: Behaviour is defined as the way one acts towards themselves and others around them. To link the two we could say that due to the attitude a person has towards spiders, he/she may behave differently.

Organisational Behaviour Modification Definition: A way of changing behaviours and attitudes by using technology and new found knowledge to influence employees to act in different ways.

Luthans and Kreitner

Luthans and Kreitner orchestrated the way of altering people’s behaviour in business. Behaviour modification first started out in treating mental patients etc. but was soon discovered to be practical in many other areas.

Organisation Behaviour Modification Five Steps

  1. Identify the critical, observable and measurable work performance-related behaviours to be encouraged
  2. Measure the current frequency of those behaviours, to provide a baseline against which to measure improvement.
  3. Establish the triggers or antecedents for those behaviours, and also establish the consequences – positive, neutral or negative – that follow from those behaviours
  4. Develop and intervention strategy to strengthen desired behaviours and weaken dysfunction behaviours through the user of positive reinforcement and corrective feedback, noting that punishment may be necessary in some instances, for example to inhibit unsafe behaviour.
  5. Evaluate systematically the effectiveness of the approach in changing behaviour and improving performance compared with the original baseline measurement.

Luthans and Kreitner (1985)

Expectancy Theory: Motivation

 Motivation in Organisations  Comments Off on Expectancy Theory: Motivation
Dec 112010
 

Motivation Definition: The reason or reasons to act in a particular way. It is what makes us do things and carry out tasks for the organisation. However, motivation is often used as an excuse, a lack of motivation for not doing anything. This is why in an organisation discipline needs to be used, to inspire the fact that motivation isn’t always needed, but discipline to get the job done is.

Expectancy Theory Definition: The expectancy theory was thought up by Vroom in 1963 and later expanded on by Porter and Lawler in 1968. The theory was one that argued that individual motivation depends on what the outcome would be like, how the person who likes the result to be will change how motivated he/she is to meet that target.

As a motive is always depending on doing something, then it becomes more desirable and therefore more motivation is put into achieving it. A good example of this is that if you were working at an organisation and would like to increase you salary, you would probably work a lot harder, if working hard is likely to get you more money. On the other hand, if you didn’t think that working hard would get you that extra bit of money, then you would probably not work hard to achieve the goal.

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory focuses on three main points; valence, instrumentality, expectancy. This theory can be shown in a formula, with force equalling the force of motivation.

Force = Valence x Instrumentality x Expectancy

The higher the value being the more motivated you are to work. If one value is zero, the answer will be zero, showing that each point needs to be met.

Valence – If valence is low this means that you are not bothered about the outcome, therefore meaning that work doesn’t need to be put in.

Instrumentality – If you don’t think the outcome will affect anything, then you won’t be motivated to try and make that outcome the best it could be.

Expectancy – If expectancy is low, this means that you don’t expect the outcome to be good no matter how hard you try; therefore there isn’t any point in trying, leading to no motivation.

Porter and Lawler

Porter and Lawler went on and made the above theory a bit more complex and in-depth. To do this they identified 9 different factors which affected work motivation, which are as follows;

  1. Perceived value of rewards
  2. Expectation that performance will lead to reward
  3. Effort
  4. Individual abilities and traits
  5. Role perceptions
  6. Job performance
  7. Intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards
  8. Perceived equity of rewards
  9. Job satisfaction

Vroom (1964)

Key Learning Points?

  1. What is the Definition of Motivation?
  2. What is the Definition of the Expectancy Theory?
  3. What are the 9 Factors Identified by Porter and Lawler Regarding Motivation?

Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory: Motivation

 Motivation in Organisations  Comments Off on Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory: Motivation
Dec 052010
 

Motivation Definition: The reason or reasons to act in a particular way. It is what makes us do things and carry out tasks for the organisation. However, motivation is often used as an excuse, a lack of motivation for not doing anything. This is why in an organisation discipline needs to be used, to inspire the fact that motivation isn’t always needed, but discipline to get the job done is.

Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Definition: Frederick Herzberg came up with a theory which would look into what caused job satisfaction and what caused job dissatisfaction. Factors which influenced making a job satisfying were called ‘Motivator Factors’ whilst factors which made a job dissatisfying were named ‘Hygiene Factors’. Below are what both of these sets include;

Hygiene Factors

If these factors are not present, they will cause people within the organisation to become dissatisfied. For example;

  • Salary and Pay
  • Job Security
  • Working Conditions
  • Supervision
  • Company Policies
  • Interpersonal Relationships

Motivation Factors

When these factors are present, people within the organisation will become satisfied. For example;

McClelland – Achievement Motivation Theory (1961)

Herzberg’s theory of motivation relates to McClelland’s in some ways, as McClelland also looked into different aspects which motivate workers and came up the same results, although he didn’t look into factors which dissatisfy workers. He came up with three achievement motivators, which were the following;

  • Achievement Motivation – Seeking achievement of realistic, yet challenging goals to enable advancement in the current job role. To reach this feedback and constructive criticism is needed.
  • Authority/Power Motivation – This person is motivated by power, by an influence on others and the ability to part their ideas on others they will gain motivation and a personal sense of status.
  • Affiliation Motivation – This person needs friendships, relationships and interactions with others. A need to be popular and liked, which leads to team working skills, but can also cause problems when hard decisions are needed to be made.

Key Learning Points

  • Define Motivation?
  • What are the Hygiene Factors?
  • What are the Motivation Factors?
  • Explain McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory?

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs: Motivation

 Motivation in Organisations  Comments Off on Maslows Hierarchy of Needs: Motivation
Dec 052010
 


Motivation Definition: The reason or reasons to act in a particular way. It is what makes us do things and carry out tasks for the organisation. However, motivation is often used as an excuse, a lack of motivation for not doing anything. This is why in an organisation discipline needs to be used, to inspire the fact that motivation isn’t always needed, but discipline to get the job done is. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Definition: Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs was created to try and show what people need satisfying so that they can fulfil themselves at work. He came up with the following five steps which must be taken to reach self-actualisation. Number 1 must be met to move onto 2, number 2 must be met to move onto 3, and so on.

  1. Physiological – Breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homoeostasis, excretion
  2. Safety – Security of: body, employment, resources, morality, the family, health, property
  3. Love and Belonging – Friendship, family, sexual intimacy
  4. Esteem – Self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others
  5. Self-Actualisation – Morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts

Take a look at the diagram below to see the above in a pyramid style;

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

This hierarchy of needs came under some criticisms, mainly due it being too vague in explaining what people need to be motivated. As well as this many people think that certain aspects of the hierarchy should be further up, or further down, showing that the diagram made is very individualistic.

Modified Needs Hierarchy Model

To overcome these problems, Alderfer came up with his own version of the hierarchy. His ‘Modified Needs Hierarchy Model’ puts Maslow’s 5 levels into just 3, which are;

  1. Existence needs – Physiological and safety
  2. Relatedness needs – Love and belonging
  3. Growth needs – Potential and self esteem

He also made a point that one level didn’t need to be satisfied to reach the other, therefore catering for more peoples motivation needs.

Key Learning Points?

  1. What is the Definition of Motivation?
  2. What are the 5 Key Points of Maslows Hierarchy of Needs?
  3. Explain Which Factors are in each Section
  4. What is the Modified Needs Hierarchy Model?

Common-sense Theory: Motivation

 Motivation in Organisations  Comments Off on Common-sense Theory: Motivation
Dec 052010
 

Motivation Definition: The reason or reasons to act in a particular way. It is what makes us do things and carry out tasks for the organisation. However, motivation is often used as an excuse, a lack of motivation for not doing anything. This is why in an organisation discipline needs to be used, to inspire the fact that motivation isn’t always needed, but discipline to get the job done is.

Common-sense Theory Definition: McGregor’s theory started off because he believed that every person has a different reason to get out of bed in the morning, a different reason to go to work and earn money. Some people, who are put into the ‘Theory X’, work to just get money, they don’t care about anything else, any other benefits. Others, put into ‘Theory Y’ go to work to get independence and improve their life. The outlines of these theories are shown below;

Common-Sense Approach 1 – Theory X

  • People cannot be trusted
  • They are lazy, irrational and unreliable
  • They need to be controlled, motivated by money and threatened by punishment
  • Without control they will pursue their own goals, which will be contrary to those of the organisation.

Common-Sense Approach 2 – Theory Y

Common-Sense Approach 3 – Paternalism

  • A person’s behaviour influenced most fundamentally by social interactions
  • These can determine sense of identity and belonging at work
  • People seek meaningful relationships at work
  • They are responsive to others expectations, often more than financial incentives.

McGregor (1960)

Key Learning Points

  1. How Would You Define Motivation?
  2. Define the Common-Sense Theory
  3. What are the Three Parts of the Common-Sense Theory?

Goal-setting Theory: Motivation

 Motivation in Organisations  Comments Off on Goal-setting Theory: Motivation
Dec 042010
 

Motivation Definition: The reason or reasons to act in a particular way. It is what makes us do things and carry out tasks for the organisation. However, motivation is often used as an excuse, a lack of motivation for not doing anything. This is why in an organisation discipline needs to be used, to inspire the fact that motivation isn’t always needed, but discipline to get the job done is.

Goal-Setting Theory Definition: This theory has established four main propositions, which help to explain work behaviour, why people strive to try and meet their goals and why people don’t work as hard as they should.

The Goal-setting Theory has mainly been applied to short-term objectives, as they are often a lot more clear and thought as, as looking too far into the future is quite hard to do. The four main propositions are below:

Creating Challenging Goals

This leads to increased levels in performance. These types of goals, also known as ‘stretch’ goals lead as to work harder and push to meet the objectives, therefore getting much more from workers for the same price.

Creating Specific Goals

This also leads to higher levels of performance, as employees know exactly what they are trying to achieve. SMART comes into this area of the theory, saying that goals should be; specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and time related.

Participation Objectives

This proposition helps to make people feel more involved with their working lives, therefore making them much more interested in actually completing the goals. Commitment is increased.

Knowing the results of the last objectives

Allowing employees to know what was achieved in past objectives will help them strive to beat them, increasing performance and results.

However, there are some implications of the Goal-setting Theory (Locke and Latham, 1990), mainly due with overuse of the above propositions. These implications are noted below:

  • Setting goals which are too hard to achieve. This could lead to dissatisfaction in the workplace and lead to less results.
  • Not being specific enough, which could lead to people missing out parts of the objective and therefore not actually meeting them.
  • Allowing employees to participate too much, which could lead to easier objectives being set, or objectives which aren’t relevant to the company.

(Locke and Latham, 1990)

Key Learning Points

  1. What is the Definition of Motivation?
  2. Explain the Goal-Setting Theory?
Dec 042010
 

Organisational Behaviour and Management comes with many different theories. On My Organisational Behaviour we are trying to provide you with an overview of each of these theories, as well as this I’ll be trying to add more depth in future posts. Take a look at the current available theories below:

Theories of Intelligence

Theories of Personality

Theories of Motivation

Theories of Perception

Theories of Attitudes and Behaviour