Culture in Organisations

 Culture in Organisations, Organisational Behaviour  Comments Off on Culture in Organisations
Feb 142011

Culture Definition: The human-generated part of the environment that is transmitted across time and generations and leads to people within that culture developing shared meanings; culture gives people ‘standard operating procedures’ or ways of doing things. Often said to be ‘the ways things are done around here’ culture is a major point within an organisation as it can lead to success or failure. It is important to manage culture and try and install one which works well for the type of organisation, the objectives and goals the business has set and the recruitment practices in place.

Organisational Culture Definition: The distinctive norms, beliefs, principles and ways of behaving that combine to give each organisation its distinctive character.

  • Norms: How things are done, people are treated and the normal goings on in a business day to day. This is influenced highly by the employees in the company, as these are the ones which spend the most time interacting with each other.
  • Beliefs: These are the thoughts employees have, they can either be installed by the employer, for example the belief that all work should be done to the highest standard despite the amount of time it may take. However, employees have beliefs which they learn themselves, such as the fact that everything may have to be done to the highest standard despite the time taken, yet as they have targets to meet in terms of when tasks should be achieved, this isn’t true and the belief isn’t there.
  • Principles: Principles are what the company sets out to do, for example Google’s ‘Don’t Be Evil’.

Arnold (2010)

Taken from our sister site which delves more into Culture is the following;

Cultures in organisation is defined by how the organisation is run, how the personalities within the organisation interact with each other and also how the structure of the company is set out. We can see this when we look at how different counties operate, for example the French are very self-righteous and therefore stick up for what they believe in, hence why they have blocked motorways when fuel prices have risen and chopped of their leaders head when they didn’t agree.

Learn more about culture by visiting My Human Resource Management Book now.

Key Learning Points

  1. What is the Definition of Culture?
  2. What is the Definition of Organisational Culture?
  3. How can a Culture be Created Within a Company?

Image from Flickr by Jean-Pierre Dalbéra

Feb 142011

Group Definition: In the setting of an organisation, a group is the collection of people who are located, grouped or gathered together, either by classification or in a more general sense. People are often put in groups, such as a department, or groups are created by the same culture or objectives within an organisation.

Team Definition: A team in an organisation is defined to be more competitive than a group, with the intention of this grouping of people to be able to achieve a common goal, reach the same objectives.

Below are the slightly expanded definitions which have been created by scholars in the field of Organisational Behaviour.

What is a Group?

A group is a number of people who;

  • interact with each other;
  • are psychologically aware of each other;
  • perceive themselves aware of each other;
  • or perceive themselves to be a group.

Schein’s (1980)

Groups and Teams In an Organisation

What is a Team?

A team is a group of people, each of whom possesses particular expertise; each of whom is responsible for making individual decisions; who together hold a common purpose; who meet together to communicate, collaborate and consolidate knowledge, from which plans are made, actions determined and future decisions influenced.

Brill’s (1976)

Key Learning Points?

  1. What is the Definition of a Group?
  2. What is the Definition of a Team?
  3. Why should groups and teams be used within organisations?

Image from Flickr by woodleywonderworks

Goal-setting Theory: Motivation

 Motivation in Organisations  Comments Off on Goal-setting Theory: Motivation
Dec 042010

Motivation Definition: The reason or reasons to act in a particular way. It is what makes us do things and carry out tasks for the organisation. However, motivation is often used as an excuse, a lack of motivation for not doing anything. This is why in an organisation discipline needs to be used, to inspire the fact that motivation isn’t always needed, but discipline to get the job done is.

Goal-Setting Theory Definition: This theory has established four main propositions, which help to explain work behaviour, why people strive to try and meet their goals and why people don’t work as hard as they should.

The Goal-setting Theory has mainly been applied to short-term objectives, as they are often a lot more clear and thought as, as looking too far into the future is quite hard to do. The four main propositions are below:

Creating Challenging Goals

This leads to increased levels in performance. These types of goals, also known as ‘stretch’ goals lead as to work harder and push to meet the objectives, therefore getting much more from workers for the same price.

Creating Specific Goals

This also leads to higher levels of performance, as employees know exactly what they are trying to achieve. SMART comes into this area of the theory, saying that goals should be; specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and time related.

Participation Objectives

This proposition helps to make people feel more involved with their working lives, therefore making them much more interested in actually completing the goals. Commitment is increased.

Knowing the results of the last objectives

Allowing employees to know what was achieved in past objectives will help them strive to beat them, increasing performance and results.

However, there are some implications of the Goal-setting Theory (Locke and Latham, 1990), mainly due with overuse of the above propositions. These implications are noted below:

  • Setting goals which are too hard to achieve. This could lead to dissatisfaction in the workplace and lead to less results.
  • Not being specific enough, which could lead to people missing out parts of the objective and therefore not actually meeting them.
  • Allowing employees to participate too much, which could lead to easier objectives being set, or objectives which aren’t relevant to the company.

(Locke and Latham, 1990)

Key Learning Points

  1. What is the Definition of Motivation?
  2. Explain the Goal-Setting Theory?