Intelligence within Organisational Behaviour: Lecture Notes

 Intelligence in Organisations, Organisational Behaviour  Comments Off on Intelligence within Organisational Behaviour: Lecture Notes
Jan 072011
 

The following covers the objectives which we need to learn for the topic of ‘Intelligence’. The notes below are guidelines to what we should know, they do not go into detail, to find more detail please use the search at the top and find the corresponding theory on the website.

Objective: To critique definitions of intelligence

  • Intelligence is the capacity of an individual to process information and use the information to behave effectively. (Arnold)
  • We don’t know where intelligence comes from, is it genes? Social environment? How much is inherited?

Objective: To compare and contrast two opposing schools of thought: “One general intelligence” versus “multiple intelligences”

  • Binet and Simon and Spearman – One general intelligence says that all intelligences are from one place, Spearman noting this as factor ‘g’. researchers such as Binet and Simon, Spearman and
  • Eysenck follow this because they found strong correlation between cognitive abilities.
  • Multiple intelligences still follows the cognitive abilities but believes there are more. Gardner said there were 7, whilst Sternberg expanded on Spearman’s ‘g’ factor and added three different theories;
  • Analytical, Creative and Practical. He named these the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence.
    Systems models of intelligence
  • Gardner (1983) – Linguistic, Spatial, Musical, Logical-mathematical, Bodily Kinaesthic, Interpersonal and Intrapersonal.
  • Sternberg (1985) – Builds on Spearman; Analytical, Creative and Practical

Objective: To explain Goleman’s model of ‘emotional intelligence’ and its application.

  • Emotions Intelligence is the ability to identify, integrate understand and reflectively manage out own and other peoples feelings. (Buchanan)
  • Emotion can be a key source of motivation
  • Started by Salovey and Mayer (1990), popularised by Goleman (1995, 1998) who says it is very important.
  • 5 dimensions; Self-awareness, regulating feelings, motivation, empathy and social skills.
  • Woodruffe (2001) questions the usefulness of the theory, as only emotional intelligent people will recognise the tests. He was a Interpretivits, saying its an idea not objective truth.
  • Others were positivists, who believed it was a thing.
Jan 062011
 

Here are some practice exam questions for you to practice. If you find any more, please send them to me.

Intelligence

  1. Evaluate Spearman’s contribution to our understanding of intelligence.
  2. Compare and contrast a structural model of intelligence and a systems model of intelligence.  Explain the relevance to organisational behaviour.
  3. Define three different kinds of intelligence and evaluate the practical value of each within an organisational setting.

Personality

  1. Compare and contrast two different approaches to personality.
  2. You are a manager who wants to improve performance in your team.  With reference to two different theories, explain how an understanding of personality might help you practically.
  3. Evaluate the contribution of trait theories of personality to the study of Organisational Behaviour.

One General Intelligence Theory: Intelligence

 Intelligence in Organisations  Comments Off on One General Intelligence Theory: Intelligence
Dec 042010
 

Intelligence Definition: This is a persons ability to take on board and develop knowledge to be applied to certain tasks and skills. Many people confuse knowledge with intelligence, seeing knowledgeable people as the most intelligent ones, however we must remember that intelligence is the ability to acquire information and skills, not just remember information when it suits them.

The one general intelligence theory, also know as a structural model, believes that all intelligence comes from one general factor, which, as Spearman refers to it is ‘g’. This theory was well believed, a couple are noted in the title, with the rest being; Galton, Jensen and Eysenck.

Binet and Simon

These two researchers carried out an experiment in a boy’s school in France from 1905 until 1908. During this time they tested the children with learning difficulties. The tests involved answering questions which were designed to see how these students measured in certain aspects of life. As the results showed, all of the questions depended on one another, and that is why Binet and Simon believe in one general intelligence.

Spearman

Spearman created factor analysis to further his research. He found that there was a high positive correlation between different tests of cognitive ability, including the likes of verbal tests and numeric tests. This led him to believe that each intelligence was connected into one. This he called ‘the general intelligence factor’ or for short ‘g’.

(Binet and Simon, 20th Century) (Spearman, 20th Century)