Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory: Motivation

Motivation Definition: The reason or reasons to act in a particular way. It is what makes us do things and carry out tasks for the organisation. However, motivation is often used as an excuse, a lack of motivation for not doing anything. This is why in an organisation discipline needs to be used, to inspire the fact that motivation isn’t always needed, but discipline to get the job done is.

Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Definition: Frederick Herzberg came up with a theory which would look into what caused job satisfaction and what caused job dissatisfaction. Factors which influenced making a job satisfying were called ‘Motivator Factors’ whilst factors which made a job dissatisfying were named ‘Hygiene Factors’. Below are what both of these sets include;

Hygiene Factors

If these factors are not present, they will cause people within the organisation to become dissatisfied. For example;

  • Salary and Pay
  • Job Security
  • Working Conditions
  • Supervision
  • Company Policies
  • Interpersonal Relationships

Motivation Factors

When these factors are present, people within the organisation will become satisfied. For example;

McClelland – Achievement Motivation Theory (1961)

Herzberg’s theory of motivation relates to McClelland’s in some ways, as McClelland also looked into different aspects which motivate workers and came up the same results, although he didn’t look into factors which dissatisfy workers. He came up with three achievement motivators, which were the following;

  • Achievement Motivation – Seeking achievement of realistic, yet challenging goals to enable advancement in the current job role. To reach this feedback and constructive criticism is needed.
  • Authority/Power Motivation – This person is motivated by power, by an influence on others and the ability to part their ideas on others they will gain motivation and a personal sense of status.
  • Affiliation Motivation – This person needs friendships, relationships and interactions with others. A need to be popular and liked, which leads to team working skills, but can also cause problems when hard decisions are needed to be made.

Key Learning Points

  • Define Motivation?
  • What are the Hygiene Factors?
  • What are the Motivation Factors?
  • Explain McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory?